Students loose reading skills during the summer if they don’t continue reading. Educators call this loss the “summer slide.” It is most severe among low-income students who lose up to two months of reading skills. Yet it is sometimes nonexistent among middle class students who make slight gains in reading during summer months. Why the difference?
- A study of 3000 sixth and seventh graders in Atlanta Public School showed that students who read at least six books during the summer maintained or improved their reading skills. But students who didn’t read lost up to a whole grade of reading skills. (B. Heyns, 1978)
- A study of Baltimore students over 15 years found that By the end of fifth grade, Baltimore students who didn’t read during the summer measured two years behind their classmates who did. They concluded that 2/3 of the reading difference in ninth graders can be attributed to reading or not during summer school breaks. (K Alexander, D. Entwisle and L. Olson, 2007)
- A study of students completing third grade who took part in their local libraries’ summer reading programs scored 52 Lexile points ahead of their classmates who did not. (Dominican University)
- Children’s absence from reading during the summer is a major hurdle for achieving good reading skills by the end of third grade. (The Campaign for Grade-Level Reading)
- The summer slide is cumulative. Some estimate that by the end of high school the summer slide can account for up to a four year lag in reading achievement, and it can have an effect on high school graduation rates. According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, “one in six children who are not reading proficiently in 3rd grade do not graduate from high school on time, a rate four times greater than that for proficient readers.”
So how can you combat the summer slide?
- Sign your child up for your local library’s summer reading program, and make sure your child completes the reading.
- Go to the library regularly and let your child select books she will enjoy.
- Help your child to read a chapter book a week, or a picture book each night.
- Encourage your child to read the newspaper, television guides, magazines and online articles.
- Reward your child with a trip to the book store to select her very own book.
- Read to your child every evening, and let him read to you. Your reading will teach fluency and pronunciation, and establish the notion that reading for pleasure is fun.
(This blog first appeared on May 16, 2014.)
The US Department of Education has put together a list of accomplishments* relating to talking and reading for children from birth to six years old. This list shows the growth of typical children developing normally, but variations exist. By seven years old, most children are reading.
From birth to age 3, most babies and toddlers become able to
- Make sounds that imitate the tones and rhythms that adults use when talking.
- Respond to gestures and facial expressions.
- Begin to associate words they hear frequently with what the words mean.
- Make cooing, babbling sounds in the crib, which gives way to enjoying rhyming and nonsense word games with a parent or caregiver.
- Play along in games such as “peek-a-boo” and “pat-a-cake.”
- Handle objects such as board books and alphabet blocks in their play.
- Recognize certain books by their covers.
- Pretend to read books.
- Understand how books should be handled.
- Share books with an adult as a routine part of life.
- Name some objects in a book.
- Talk about characters in books.
- Look at pictures in books and realize they are symbols of real things.
- Listen to stories.
- Ask or demand that adults read or write with them.
- Begin to pay attention to specific print such as the first letters of their names.
- Scribble with a purpose (trying to write or draw something).
- Produce some letter-like forms and scribbles that resemble, in some way, writing.
From ages 3-4, most preschoolers become able to
- Enjoy listening to and talking about storybooks.
- Understand that print carries a message.
- Make attempts to read and write.
- Identify familiar signs and labels.
- Participate in rhyming games.
- Identify some letters and make some letter-sound matches.
- Use known letters (or their best attempt to write the letters) to represent written language especially for meaningful words like their names or phrases such as “I love you.”
At age 5, most kindergartners become able to
- Sound as if they are reading when they pretend to read.
- Enjoy being read to.
- Retell simple stories.
- Use descriptive language to explain or to ask questions.
- Recognize letters and letter-sound matches.
- Show familiarity with rhyming and beginning sounds.
- Understand that print is read left-to-right and top-to-bottom.
- Begin to match spoken words with written ones.
- Begin to write letters of the alphabet and some words they use and hear often.
- Begin to write stories with some readable parts.
At age 6, most first-graders can
- Read and retell familiar stories.
- Use a variety of ways to help with reading a story such as rereading, predicting what will happen, asking questions, or using visual cues or pictures.
- Decide on their own to use reading and writing for different purposes;
- Read some things aloud with ease.
- Identify new words by using letter-sound matches, parts of words and their understanding of the rest of a story or printed item.
- Identify an increasing number of words by sight.
- Sound out and represent major sounds in a word when trying to spell.
- Write about topics that mean a lot to them.
- Try to use some punctuation marks and capitalization.
*Based on information from Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, a report of the National Research Council, by the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 1998; and from the Joint Position Statement of the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), 1998.
Posted in ABC's, asking questions, kindergarten readiness, learning in infancy, letter sounds, literacy, phonics, picture books, reading readiness., reading research, US education
Several publishers have begun offering pint-sized versions of literary classics like Old Man and the Sea, Moby Dick and War and Peace for infants, toddlers and primary grade readers.
For $6.99, Cozy Classics (http://www.mycozyclassics.com/books/) offers Great Expectations, Pride and Prejudice and Jane Eyre. These board books pair one word per page with one image. Moby Dick, for example is reduced to these 12 words: sailor, boat, captain, leg, mad, sail, find, whale, chase, smash, sink and float. The illustrations are photos of felt-made scenes, giving the books a fuzzy feel.
For $9.99 Baby Lit (https://babylit.com/collections/books/Classic-Lit) offers board books such as The Odyssey, Jayne Eyre and Anna Karenina. Anna Karenina? A novel about a married woman who has an affair, is ostracized by society, becomes paranoid and commits suicide? Yes, but the Baby Lit version focuses not on the story but on the fashions of 1876 St. Petersburg—ball gowns, parasols, gloves and military uniforms.
For $16.95 KinderGuides (https://www.kinderguides.com/) offers four classics (more to come) for children of six years old or older. The books, which are sanitized guides for the original novels, include Breakfast at Tiffany’s, 2001: A Space Odyssey, On the Road, and The Old Man and the Sea. Each book contains a summary of the original story, information about the author, key words and characters, and a quiz.
The New York Times Book Review judges picture books published in the past year and chooses the best ones based only on the illustrations. The covers of this year’s ten winners are shown below.
The Cat from Hunger Mountain, written and illustrated by Ed Young
The Dead Bird by Margaret Wise Brown, illustrated by christian Robinson
Freedom in congo Square by Carole Boston Weatherford, illustrated by R. Gregory Christie
Little Red, written and illustrated by Bethan Woolvin
The Polar Bear, written and illustrated by Jenni Desmond
Preaching to the chickens by Jubrai Asim, illustrated by E. B. Lewis
The Princess and the Warrior, written and illustrated by Duncan Tonatiuh
The Tree in the Courtyard by Jeff Gottesfeld, illustrated by Peter mcCarty
A Voyage in the Clouds by Matthew Olshan, illustrated by Sophie Blackall
The White Cat and the Monk by Jo Ellen Bogart, illustrated by Sydney Smith