The US Department of Education has put together a list of accomplishments* relating to talking and reading for children from birth to six years old. This list shows the growth of typical children developing normally, but variations exist. By seven years old, most children are reading.
From birth to age 3, most babies and toddlers become able to
- Make sounds that imitate the tones and rhythms that adults use when talking.
- Respond to gestures and facial expressions.
- Begin to associate words they hear frequently with what the words mean.
- Make cooing, babbling sounds in the crib, which gives way to enjoying rhyming and nonsense word games with a parent or caregiver.
- Play along in games such as “peek-a-boo” and “pat-a-cake.”
- Handle objects such as board books and alphabet blocks in their play.
- Recognize certain books by their covers.
- Pretend to read books.
- Understand how books should be handled.
- Share books with an adult as a routine part of life.
- Name some objects in a book.
- Talk about characters in books.
- Look at pictures in books and realize they are symbols of real things.
- Listen to stories.
- Ask or demand that adults read or write with them.
- Begin to pay attention to specific print such as the first letters of their names.
- Scribble with a purpose (trying to write or draw something).
- Produce some letter-like forms and scribbles that resemble, in some way, writing.
From ages 3-4, most preschoolers become able to
- Enjoy listening to and talking about storybooks.
- Understand that print carries a message.
- Make attempts to read and write.
- Identify familiar signs and labels.
- Participate in rhyming games.
- Identify some letters and make some letter-sound matches.
- Use known letters (or their best attempt to write the letters) to represent written language especially for meaningful words like their names or phrases such as “I love you.”
At age 5, most kindergartners become able to
- Sound as if they are reading when they pretend to read.
- Enjoy being read to.
- Retell simple stories.
- Use descriptive language to explain or to ask questions.
- Recognize letters and letter-sound matches.
- Show familiarity with rhyming and beginning sounds.
- Understand that print is read left-to-right and top-to-bottom.
- Begin to match spoken words with written ones.
- Begin to write letters of the alphabet and some words they use and hear often.
- Begin to write stories with some readable parts.
At age 6, most first-graders can
- Read and retell familiar stories.
- Use a variety of ways to help with reading a story such as rereading, predicting what will happen, asking questions, or using visual cues or pictures.
- Decide on their own to use reading and writing for different purposes;
- Read some things aloud with ease.
- Identify new words by using letter-sound matches, parts of words and their understanding of the rest of a story or printed item.
- Identify an increasing number of words by sight.
- Sound out and represent major sounds in a word when trying to spell.
- Write about topics that mean a lot to them.
- Try to use some punctuation marks and capitalization.
*Based on information from Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, a report of the National Research Council, by the Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, 1998; and from the Joint Position Statement of the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), 1998.
Posted in ABC's, asking questions, kindergarten readiness, learning in infancy, letter sounds, literacy, phonics, picture books, reading readiness., reading research, US education
Yes. Check this list of indicators developed by Decoding Dyslexia, New Jersey. But keep in mind that a child exhibiting one or two of the indicators isn’t necessarily dyslexic. For example, almost all children learning their letters mix up b and d. But a child showing several of the indicators might foreshadow problems learning to read or spell. That child should be tested.
Dyslexia is defined as a neurological learning disability. Children having difficulty with word recognition, fluency, poor spelling or decoding might be dyslexic. The sooner it can be identified in a child, and the earlier intervention can begin, the better the chances that the child will learn to read.
A key indicator is family history. If a parent or a sibling has had trouble learning to read, there is a greater chance that another member of the family will have trouble.
According to Decoding Dyslexia, New Jersey, Language indicators could include:
- delayed speech
- trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, and days of the week
- difficulty rapidly naming people and objects
- lack of interest in stories and books
- mispronouncing words
- difficulty using new vocabulary words correctly
- trouble distinguishing words from other words that sound similar
- struggling to identify or produce words that rhyme
Reading indicators could include:
- difficulty naming and recognizing the letters of the alphabet
- problems matching letters to their correct sounds
- scoring below expected reading level for his/her age
- trouble understanding the difference between sounds in words
- difficulty blending letter sounds within words
- trouble recognizing and remembering sight words
- confusing letters and words that look similar
- losing his/her place—and skipping over words—while reading
- avoiding reading tasks
Writing indicators could include:
- problems copying and writing at an age-appropriate level
- confusing the order or direction of letters, numbers and symbols
- spelling words incorrectly and inconsistently most of the time
- a tendency to spell phonetically
- poor ability to proofread and correct written work
- handwriting which shows poor letter formation and placement
Social / emotional indicators could include:
- Lack of motivation about school or learning
- lack of confidence in learning
- negative self-image compared to grade-level peers
- expressing dislike for reading and other academic tasks
- exhibiting anxiety or frustration
Other indicators could include:
- poor sense of direction/spatial concepts, such as left and right
- performing inconsistently on daily tasks
- appearing distracted and unfocused
If your child shows some of these characteristics, don’t be discouraged. Most children show some of them. And if your child is dyslexic, there is so much you, as a parent, can do to prepare your preschooler to read fluently. In the next blog we’ll identify some of those activities.
Checking that a child can touch his ear with the opposite hand is one test for kindergarten readiness. But if you are looking for specific proof that your child is ready, here are some of the abilities which Kentucky looks for in each child:
- Stating his or her name, age, birthday and phone number
- Naming body parts as they are pointed to
- Standing on one leg with eyes open and then closed
- Identifying shapes such as triangles and squares
- Saying (not singing) the ABC’s
- Naming letters pointed to
- Counting into the twenties
- Separating a certain number of blocks from a group of blocks
- Identifying the front and back of a book
- Identifying in what order words are read
The test used by Kentucky looks at five broad areas: academic / cognitive; language development; physical development; self-help; and social-emotional.
Not all states test incoming kindergarteners, yet all are looking for kindergarten-ready skills in children. You can use this information to prepare your child for a great start to school.