Category Archives: summer slide

Is the “summer slide” a myth?

New research published in Education Next  says that previous research indicating a loss of learning during summer months may not be true.

Summer slide (decline) of reading scores.

Researcher Paul T. von Hippel, of the University of Texas at Austin, says he now doubts if students lose months of skills each summer or if a ninth grade achievement gap can be based on the cumulative effect of not studying during the summer while students are in elementary school.

The original research showing a “summer slide” was done on students in Baltimore in the 1980s.  But von Hippel says the testing methods used then tended to distort student reading scores.  He and his colleagues tried to replicate part of the 1980 study and could not, leading him to question the conclusion of that study.

He said that soon after the study was reported, faults were found in it, but they somehow became forgotten over time.

Von Hippel said that a researcher could achieve any gap desired by asking certain questions.

Does this mean that over the summer students remember all that they learned during the past year?  Not necessarily.  But better research, the kind which can be replicated, must be done to say if the summer slide is real and to what extent learning is lost or retained.

How to stop or reverse the summer slide

Summer is a time when kids can lose some of their reading abilities if kids don’t read.  But it can also be a time of improved reading if kids read nearly every day.  How can you help?

Read to your child daily.  For prereaders, read picture books, asking questions to gain information from the illustrations.  For beginning readers, sit side-by-side with your child and let the child read to you.  Or if he balks, you read one page and he reads the next.  Older children love to be read to, so don’t stop just because they can read.

Ask questions while you read.  “Why did he do that?”  “What do you think will happen next?”  “Where did the story happen?”  Questions force the child to think harder about the text and to remember.  Ask questions after every page or two and at the end of the book.  This kind of questioning can help children strengthen their memory skills.

Pick a reading time and stick to it.  Usually right before “lights out” is a time when reading together can be habitual, especially if the child believes reading allows him to stay up later.  If the child doesn’t need to wake up early the next day, leave a pile of books in the bed for the child to finger through for an extra 15 or 30 minutes.

Take your child to the library.  Investigate books unlike the ones you have at home.  Use those books to expand your child’s knowledge about the world.  If one is about George Washington’s life, look for books on surveying or colonial life or false teeth.  Supplemental reading enriches and extends the ideas of one book.  You and your child can do this online too.

After you read a book together, close it and ask the child to retell the story.  Or let the child look at the pictures and retell the story.

Select a “word of the day” taken from the child’s reading. Write it on a few cards and put them on the refrigerator, on the kitchen counter, and on the car dashboard.  Use that word several times a day in sentences which the child can understand.  You can make learning the word a game.  For every time the child can tell you what the word means, she gets a sticker.

Draw pictures of words to help the child learn them.  You can put together weekly vocabulary books of the pictures drawn that week, and read them at night to help the child remember the words.  The more the child uses the words, the more likely the child will remember them.

For parents working more than one job or away from home for long hours, finding time for summer reading can be hard.  But if you think of it as a necessity for your child’s future—like brushing teeth or eating fresh fruit—you can build reading into your routine.  If money allows, you can hire a middle schooler or high schooler to come into the home and read while you prepare dinner or after the kids have had their baths.

If you have ever felt behind your classmates, you know how debilitating that feels.  Make a promise to hone your child’s reading summer skills so next fall he or she starts school on level or even advanced.  Your child’s triumphant smile will thank you.

Books on Bikes blocks summer slide

The Summer Slide—the slide back in achievement when kids take the summer off from reading—has plenty of research to back it up.  What can adults do to overcome the slide?

In Charlottesville, VA, several librarians and teachers bring books to children.  Using specially outfitted bicycles, the librarians and teachers peddle around neighborhoods, ringing bells on their bikes and calling out to children for free books and popsicles.  When the children run out, the adults offer children time to browse through the offerings and sometimes read to the children before moving on to another street.

Begun in 2011, Books on Bikes is reaching hundreds of students every summer.  The program started out small, with librarians pulling a little red wagon full of books.  But through fundraising and volunteer help, Books on Bikes now includes six cargo bikes (worth about $1300 each), specially constructed book cases that fit over the back wheels, and a dedicated team of peddling librarians and teachers.

The program has a two-fold mission:  to get books into the hands of children and to create friendly relationships between the libraries, schools and the Charlottesville community.  Books on Bikes raises funds through grants, business contributions and jars on the countertops of local businesses.

Books on Bikes posts its itinerary online so parents know when to expect the team of book-carrying bikers to arrive in their neighborhood.  Biking hours are from 5:30 to 7 so that children in summer camps during the day are home when the librarians and teachers bike nearby.

The team includes four librarians (Mary Craig and Rebecca Flowers—the founders of the program—and Sarah Fitzhenry and Katie Plunkett) and two teachers (Kellie Keyser and Stacy Diaz).  Now it also includes three therapy dogs.

For more information on the Charlottesville program, or to find out how to start your own Books on Bikes program, go to http://www.booksonbikescville.org/.

Take a book. Leave a book.

Are you trying to encourage a child to read more this summer in order to avoid the “summer slide”?  Here’s a suggestion I learned about while driving around Orlando a few weeks ago.

This Little Free Library is located in Arlington, VA.

I saw what looked like a bird house on someone’s front lawn near the sidewalk.  “That’s too low to be a safe house for a bird,” I thought, so I investigated.  The structure, made of wood with a glass front which opened and closed, contained about a dozen books.

It was a lending library on a private citizen’s lawn.

Perhaps you have a Little Free Library in your neighborhood too?  They were started in 2009 by Todd Bol who constructed a single box, but the idea has spread across the US, Canada, and Mexico to 70 other countries.  There are close to 100,000 registered Little Free Libraries, part of a nonprofit organization started by Bol.

This Little Free Library is located in Peachtree Corners, GA.

The idea is that anyone is free to take a book or leave a book from the Little Free Library.  Usually the family who establishes the Little Free Library takes care of it.

If you want to start a Little Free Library of your own, you can order your own library box fully made.  Or you can order construction plans to create your own.  Or if you have a flair for building, you can create your own.  Pictures I’ve seen include light house inspired boxes, phone booth inspired boxes, and simple wooden crates.

Some people add personal touches to their Little Free Libraries such as benches, a guest book (as simple as a spiral notebook), a handle to which you can attach your dog’s leach while you browse, bookmarks, pencils, crayons and solar lights.  But all that is really necessary is a weather-protected box and some books.

What kinds of books?  Whatever you think your neighbors will enjoy.  Picture books, graphic novels, biographies, decorating magazines, sci fi, thrillers—any kind which you think your neighbors will appreciate.

The Little Free Library has its own website with an interactive map that makes it possible for you to find a Little Free Library near your home.  When I checked, I found two within two miles of where I live in Georgia.

For more information, go to https://littlefreelibrary.org.

Make a summer resolution to read

On January first, many of us make New Year resolutions.  Why not do the same thing on the first day of summer vacation?  In particular, why not make a resolution to encourage our children to read?

Here are some easy ways to get even the youngest readers reading.

  • Make time for reading every day. Turn off the TV.  Put away the phone.  Turn off the video games.    You can read to your little one, or you can share the reading with your youngster who is learning to read or is reluctant to read.  If you have a reluctant reader, you can read up to a suspenseful part, and then ask your reluctant reader to take turns.  Or you can read five pages while he reads one.  Whatever gets the student to read.

girl reading Junie B. Jones

  • Provide books, lots of books. This could mean weekly trips to the library for a stack of books.  Or trips to the local resale shop.  Or a special trip to the bookstore for one special book as a reward.  Let the child pick and choose.  If he finds one author he likes, find more by the same author or on the same topic.

Son and mother reading on a park bench.

  • Document the reading. On the refrigerator, start a chart for each member of the family.  List the title of each book read.  Make it a contest if your child is competitive.  Recognize that chapter books take longer than picture books and “handicap” the readers of longer books.  Offer rewards?

children looking at picture of Lincoln and Mrs. Lincoln

  • Make sure children see you, the adult, reading for pleasure. Laugh out loud when you read a funny passage.  Whistle when you read something exciting.  Talk about what you are reading.  “Wow!  I didn’t know that!”  Entice your little ones into the pleasure of reading.

Research shows that some of the gains made by children during the previous school year are lost if they don’t read during the summer (called the “summer slide”).  Likewise,  those gains made during the school year can be solidified and even augmented by reading during the summer.  Read!

Don’t slip down the Summer Slide!

Research shows that students loose reading skills during the summer if they don’t continue reading.  Educators call this loss the “summer slide.”  It is most severe among low-income students who lose up to two months of reading skills.  Yet it is sometimes nonexistent among middle class students who make slight gains in reading during summer months.  Why the difference?

Summer slide (decline) of reading scores.

  • A study of 3000 sixth and seventh graders in Atlanta Public School showed that students who read at least six books during the summer maintained or improved their reading skills.  But students who didn’t read lost up to a whole grade of reading skills.  (B. Heyns, 1978)
  • A study of Baltimore students over 15 years found that By the end of fifth grade, Baltimore students who didn’t read during the summer measured two years behind their classmates who did.  They concluded that 2/3 of the reading difference in ninth graders can be attributed to reading or not during summer school breaks.  (K Alexander, D. Entwisle and L. Olson, 2007)
  • A study of students completing third grade who took part in their local libraries’ summer reading programs scored 52 Lexile points ahead of their classmates who did not. (Dominican University)
  •  Children’s absence from reading during the summer is a major hurdle for achieving good reading skills by the end of third grade.  (The Campaign for Grade-Level Reading)
  • The summer slide is cumulative.  Some estimate that by the end of high school the summer slide can account for up to a four year lag in reading achievement, and it can have an effect on high school graduation rates.  According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, “one in six children who are not reading proficiently in 3rd grade do not graduate from high school on time, a rate four times greater than that for proficient readers.”

So how can you combat the summer slide?

  • Sign your child up for your local library’s summer reading program, and make sure your child completes the reading.
  • Go to the library regularly and let your child select books she will enjoy.
  • Help your child to read a chapter book a week, or a picture book each night.
  • Encourage your child to read the newspaper, television guides, magazines and online articles.
  • Reward your child with a trip to the book store to select her very own book.
  • Read to your child every evening, and let him read to you.  Your reading will teach fluency and pronunciation, and establish the notion that reading for pleasure is fun.

(This blog first appeared on May 16, 2014.)

Maintain reading skills during the summer

Students loose reading skills during the summer if they don’t continue reading.  Educators call this loss the “summer slide.”  It is most severe among low-income students who lose up to two months of reading skills.  Yet it is sometimes nonexistent among middle class students who make slight gains in reading during summer months.  Why the difference?

Summer slide (decline) of reading scores.

  • A study of 3000 sixth and seventh graders in Atlanta Public School showed that students who read at least six books during the summer maintained or improved their reading skills.  But students who didn’t read lost up to a whole grade of reading skills.  (B. Heyns, 1978)
  • A study of Baltimore students over 15 years found that By the end of fifth grade, Baltimore students who didn’t read during the summer measured two years behind their classmates who did.  They concluded that 2/3 of the reading difference in ninth graders can be attributed to reading or not during summer school breaks.  (K Alexander, D. Entwisle and L. Olson, 2007)
  • A study of students completing third grade who took part in their local libraries’ summer reading programs scored 52 Lexile points ahead of their classmates who did not. (Dominican University)
  •  Children’s absence from reading during the summer is a major hurdle for achieving good reading skills by the end of third grade.  (The Campaign for Grade-Level Reading)
  • The summer slide is cumulative.  Some estimate that by the end of high school the summer slide can account for up to a four year lag in reading achievement, and it can have an effect on high school graduation rates.  According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, “one in six children who are not reading proficiently in 3rd grade do not graduate from high school on time, a rate four times greater than that for proficient readers.”

So how can you combat the summer slide?

  • Sign your child up for your local library’s summer reading program, and make sure your child completes the reading.
  • Go to the library regularly and let your child select books she will enjoy.
  • Help your child to read a chapter book a week, or a picture book each night.
  • Encourage your child to read the newspaper, television guides, magazines and online articles.
  • Reward your child with a trip to the book store to select her very own book.
  • Read to your child every evening, and let him read to you.  Your reading will teach fluency and pronunciation, and establish the notion that reading for pleasure is fun.

(This blog first appeared on May 16, 2014.)