Little children need to learn so many words, but 15 are especially important for answering questions in school and on tests. For example, if students think “compare” means to show how two things are different, they will answer a test question incorrectly. Knowing the meaning of direction words is vital.
According to Marilee Sprenger*, who analyzed the Common Core standards and other sources to develop this list, the words for kindergarteners, first graders and second graders are
- Comprehend, and
These words are not everyday words for little children. Children need to learn these words’ meanings from teachers and parents. How?
First the adult says the word properly and explains what it means, using it in the context of something the children already know. Next the children repeat the explanation, paraphrasing the adult’s explanation and using an example of their own. Children then might draw a picture of the word’s meaning to show that they understand. The adult should use the word many times and encourage students to write down the word and its meaning. The adult should continue to use the word in situations where students must act to show if they understand the word. Finally, occasional word games, like vocabulary bees and word BINGO games, reinforce the word and its meaning.**
Sometimes we suppose students know words because they have heard them over and over. But that does not mean they know them. I worked with a seventh grader who thought “compare” means “contrast.” It’s important for us to take the time to teach these words so when children encounter them as directions for homework, quizzes or tests, they can perform correctly.
*Teaching the Critical Vocabulary of the Common Core; 55 words that make or break student understanding, by Sprenger, 2013
**Building Academic Vocabulary: Teacher’s Manual by Marzano and Pickering, 2005