If you are attempting to teach your child to read, and you go to Amazon or your local book store and find literally hundreds of instruction books, dozens of video games, and all kinds of apps and CDs, and boxes of flash cards, where do you begin? Is all that “stuff” really necessary?
I suggest a method which includes spending time with your child but not much money.
Start with the sounds of English. There are about 42 in most parts of the US. Say the sounds aloud, one at a time. Let your child listen and repeat the sounds aloud. If he can’t say one or two of the sounds, work on those sounds for a few minutes each day until he can hear and repeat all the sounds. (Supplies you will need: a list of the 42 sounds, available free on this website and online.)
Next, explain that we associate letters with those sounds. Start with consonants and teach the child to match each sound with a letter. Move on to vowels and explain that some sounds share the same letter. (At this point, don’t try to teach digraphs or exceptions.) Say a particular sound and ask your child what letter goes with that sound. Show a handful of letters to choose from and add more options as the child gains accuracy. (Supplies you will need: a set of the ABC’s on cards, on letter tiles or written by hand on index cards.)
Once the child can associate sounds with letters accurately, form CVC (consonant—vowel—consonant) words, such as “c a t.” From years of experience I have found that letter tiles work best at this. (I use Scrabble game tiles, but there are other kinds.) Set the three letters an inch apart. Say the letter sounds one by one. Move the letter tiles together slowly and then more rapidly, saying the letter sounds so that they eventually slur together. Help the child learn that when we put letter sounds together, we form words. (Supplies you will need: lists of CVC words available free online.)
At this point, your child can read many of the words in some books, such as The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham and Hop on Pop. Encourage the child to read the words she can and you read the other words. If you own the books and don’t mind marking them, you can underline the words your child knows as she reads–a visible proof to the child that she can read. (Supplies you will need: a few early reading books available free online or for less than a dollar each at most resale stores.)
Next you need a plan to sequence the teaching of various types of words. You can find plenty online. Most plans start with two- or three-letter short vowel words like “cat” and “ax.” Then they move on to blends, first at the beginnings of short vowel words (“blot”) and when those are understood, at the ends of such words (“blotch.”) Adding “s” to form plurals is considered such a blend. Then teach digraphs and sight (Dolch) words. (Supplies you will need: Lists of sight or Dolch words available free online.)
Some authorities suggest teaching two- and three-syllable short vowel words at this point, such as “catnip” and “tunnel.” Others suggest tackling one-syllable long vowel words beginning with words ending with a silent “e” such as “bake” and “tune” and then moving on to other long vowel combinations such as “ee” and “oa.” There is no right or wrong sequence. It is important to keep reviewing words the student already learned and mixing them up while you are teaching new kinds of words. (Supplies you will need: Lists of such words available free online.)
At this point, you might teach prefixes and suffixes, or words which don’t follow rules such as two-syllable words with one consonant between the two vowels. Does the consonant go with the first syllable (“robin”) or with the second syllable (“robust”)? (Supplies you will need: Lists of such words available free online.)
Three- and four-syllable words follow the same rules as one- and two-syllable words, but the problem is where to put the inflection so that they are pronounced correctly. Help the child pronounce such words all possible ways until she hears the correct way. You and your child might read books you own or library books, and when you come to long words, stop, and figure them out together. (Supplies you will need: Picture books, and lists of multi-syllable words available free online.)
By now your child is reading. She might need help occasionally pronouncing a particular word, or more likely, understanding the meaning of an unfamiliar word. But learning the sounds of English (phonemes) and linking those sounds to form words (phonics) is largely done.